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Environmental management ielts reading answers

The role of governments in environmental management is difficult but inescapable. Sometimes, the state tries to manage the resources it owns, and does so badly. Often, however, governments act in an even more harmful way. They actually subsidise the exploitation and consumption of natural resources. A whole range of policies, from farm- price support to protection for coal-mining, do environmental damage and often make no economic sense.

Scrapping them offers a two-fold bonus: a cleaner environment and a more efficient economy. Growth and environmentalism can actually go hand in hand, if politicians have the courage to confront the vested interest that subsidies create.

No activity affects more of the earth's surface than farming. It shapes a third of the planet's land area, not counting Antarctica, and the proportion Is rising. World food output per head has risen by 4 per cent between the s and s mainly as a result of increases in yields from land already in cultivation, but also because more land has been brought under the plough. Higher yields have been achieved by increased irrigation, better crop breeding, and a doubling in the use of pesticides and chemical fertilisers in the s and s.

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All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts. For example, land clearing for agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation; chemical fertilisers and pesticides may contaminate water supplies; more intensive farming and the abandonment of fallow periods tend to exacerbate soil erosion; and the spread of mono-Culture and use of high-yielding varieties of crops have been accompanied by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants which might have provided some insurance against pests or diseases in future.

Soil erosion threatens the productivity of land In both rich and poor countries. The United States, where the most careful measurements have been done, discovered in that about one-fifth of its farmtand as losing topsoil at a rate likely to diminish the soil's productivity. The country subsequently embarked upon a program to convert 11 per cent of its cropped land to meadow or forest. Topsoil in India and China is vanishing much faster than in America.

Government policies have frequently compounded the environmental damage that farming can cause. In the rich countries, subsidies for growing crops and price supports for farm output drive up the price of land. To increase the output of crops per acre, a farmer's easiest option is to use more of the most readily available inputs: fertilisers and pesticides.

Fertiliser use doubled in Denmark in the period and increased in The Netherlands by per cent. The quantity of pesticides applied has risen too; by 69 per cent In in Denmark, for example, with a rise of per cent in the frequency of application in the three years from In the late s and early s some efforts were made to reduce farm subsidies.

The most dramatic example was that of New Zealand, which scrapped most farm support in A study of the environmental effects, conducted infound that the end of fertiliser subsidies had been followed by a fall in fertiliser use a fall compounded by the decline in world commodity prices, which cut farm incomes.

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The removal of subsidies also stopped land-clearing and over-stocking, which in the past had been the principal causes of erosion.Section A The role of governments in environmental management is difficult but inescapable.

Sometimes, the state tries to manage the resources it owns, and does so badly. Often, however, governments act in an even more harmful way. They actually subsidise the exploitation and consumption of natural resources. A whole range of policies, from farm- price support to protection for coal-mining, do environmental damage and often make no economic sense.

Scrapping them offers a two-fold bonus: a cleaner environment and a more efficient economy. Growth and environmentalism can actually go hand in hand, if politicians have the courage to confront the vested interest that subsidies create. World food output per head has risen by 4 per cent between the s and s mainly as a result of increases in yields from land already in cultivation, but also because more land has been brought under the plough. Higher yields have been achieved by increased irrigation, better crop breeding, and a doubling in the use of pesticides and chemical fertilisers in the s and s.

Section C All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts. For example, land clearing for agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation; chemical fertilisers and pesticides may contaminate water supplies; more intensive farming and the abandonment of fallow periods tend to exacerbate soil erosion; and the spread of mono-Culture and use of high-yielding varieties of crops have been accompanied by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants which might have provided some insurance against pests or diseases in future.

Soil erosion threatens the productivity of land in both rich and poor countries.

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The country subsequently embarked upon a program to convert 11 per cent of its cropped land to meadow or forest. Topsoil in India and China is vanishing much faster than in America. Section D Government policies have frequently compounded the environmental damage that farming can cause.

In the rich countries, subsidies for growing crops and price supports for farm output drive up the price of land. Fertiliser use doubled in Denmark in the period and increased in The Netherlands by per cent.

The quantity of pesticides applied has risen too; by 69 per cent in in Denmark, for example, with a rise of per cent in the frequency of application in the three years from In the late s and early s some efforts were made to reduce farm subsidies. The most dramatic example was that of New Zealand, which scrapped most farm support in A study of the environmental effects, conducted infound that the end of fertiliser subsidies had been followed by a fall in fertiliser use a fall compounded by the decline in world commodity prices, which cut farm incomes.

The removal of subsidies also stopped land-clearing and over-stocking, which in the past had been the principal causes of erosion. Farms began to diversify. The one kind of subsidy whose removal appeared to have been bad for the environment was the subsidy to manage soil erosion. In less enlightened countries, and in the European Union, the trend has been to reduce rather than eliminate subsidies, and to introduce new payments to encourage farmers to treat their land in environmentally friendlier ways, or to leave it follow.

It may sound strange but such payments need to be higher than the existing incentives for farmers to grow food crops. Farmers, however, dislike being paid to do nothing.Found a mistake? Let us know! Share this Practice Test. Being located on an offshore island, the resort is only accessible by means of water transportation.

The resort provides hourly ferry service from the marina on the mainland to and from the island. Within the resort, transport modes include walking trails, bicycle tracks and the beach train.

environmental management ielts reading answers

The reception area is the counter of the shop which has not changed in 8 years at least. These are large rooms that are clean but! The equipment is tired and in some cases just working. Our ceiling fan only worked on high speed for example. Beds are hard but clean, there is television, radio, an old air conditioner and a small fridge. The only thing is the mosquitos but if you forget to bring mosquito repellant they sell some on the island.

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The water supply is recharged by rainfall and is commonly known as an unconfined freshwater aquifer. In order to minimise some of these problems, all laundry activities are carried out on the mainland. Excess heat recovered from the generator is used to heat the swimming pool. Water efficient fittings are also installed in showers and toilets.

However, not all the appliances used by the resort are energy efficient, such as refrigerators. Visitors who stay at the resort are encouraged to monitor their water and energy usage via the in-house television system, and are rewarded with prizes such as a free return trip to the resort accordingly if their usage level is low.

The resort has embraced and has effectively implemented contemporary environmental management practices. It has been argued that the successful implementation of the principles of sustainability should promote long-term social, economic and environmental benefitswhile ensuring and enhancing the prospects of continued viability for the tourism enterprise.

According to Prideaux, the resort should be at least at Phase 3 of the model the National tourism phasewhich describes an integrated resort providing star hotel-type accommodation. The primary tourist market in Phase 3 of the model consists mainly of interstate visitors. However, the number of interstate and international tourists visiting the resort is small, with the principal visitor markets comprising locals and residents from nearby towns and the Gold Coast region.

Answers for “Environmental Management” with explanation

Please descibe the mistake as details as possible along with your expected correction, leave your email so we can contact with you when needed. Please enter description. Please enter a valid email. Follow us on Facebook Mini ielts. Eco-Resort Management. Other Tests.

Total questions: Tea and the Industrial Revolution. A little-known island community comes in from the cold Recent Actual Tests. A little-known island community comes in from the cold. Spoken Corpus comes to life Science. Spoken Corpus comes to life. This Marvellous Invention Science.You can score whole e. The IELTS scoring system is very unique composed of 9 bands, measured in consistent manner and is internationally acclaimed and understood.

The individual result from these four parts will produce an overall band score The total test time is 2 hours and 45 minutes.

The Listening, Reading and Writing tests are done in one sitting. Generally, when you take any test or exam then there can be the possibility of getting passed or failed.

But here in this case, you will not get failed but you may be disqualified to continue your higher education in choice of college or university. For many environmentalists, the world seems to be getting worse. But a quick look at the facts shows a different picture. Fewer people are starving. Third, although species are indeed becoming extinct, only about 0. And finally, most forms of environmental pollution either appear to have been exaggerated, or are transient — associated with the early phases of industrialization and therefore best cured not by restricting economic growth, but by accelerating it.

One form of pollution — the release of greenhouse gases that causes global warming — does appear to be a phenomenon that is going to extend well into our future, but its total impact is unlikely to pose a devastating problem. A bigger problem may well turn out to be an inappropriate response to it.

environmental management ielts reading answers

Yet opinion polls suggest that many people nurture the belief that environmental standards are declining and four factors seem to cause this disjunction between perception and reality.

One is the lopsidedness built into scientific research. Scientific funding goes mainly to areas with many problems. That may be wise policy but it will also create an impression that many more potential problems exist than is the case.

Secondly, environmental groups need to be noticed by the mass media. They also need to keep the money rolling in. Understandably, perhaps, they sometimes overstate their arguments. Though these groups are run overwhelmingly by selfless folk, they nevertheless share many of the characteristics of other lobby groups.

That would matter less if people applied the same degree of skepticism to environmental lobbying as they do to lobby groups in other fields. A trade organization arguing for, say, weaker pollution control is instantly seen as self-interested. Yet a green organization opposing such a weakening is seen as altruistic, even if an impartial view of the controls in question might suggest they are doing more harm than good.

IELTS Reading – The truth about the environment

A third source of confusion is the attitude of the media. People are dearly more curious about bad news than good.

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Newspapers and broadcasters are there to provide what the public wants: That, however, can lead to significant distortions of perception. This climatic phenomenon was accused of wrecking tourism, causing allergies, melting the ski-slopes, and causing 22 deaths.

These came from higher winter temperatures which saved an estimated lives, reduced heating costs and diminished spring floods caused by melt waters.

The fourth factor is poor individual perception. People worry that the endless rise in the amount of stuff everyone throws away will cause the world to run out of places to dispose of waste. So what of global warming? As we know, carbon dioxide emissions are causing the planet to warm. Despite the intuition that something drastic needs to be done about such a costly problem, economic analyses dearly show it will be far more expensive to cut carbon dioxide emissions radically than to pay the costs of adaptation to the increased temperatures.

A model by one of the main authors of the United Nations Climate Change Panel shows how an expected temperature increase of 2. Or to put it another way, the temperature increase that the planet would have experienced in would be postponed to So this does not prevent global warming, but merely buys the world six years.

Such measures would avoid 2 million deaths every year, and prevent half a billion people from becoming seriously ill. It is crucial that we look at the facts if we want to make the best possible decisions for the future.IELTS reading passage.

The role of governments in environmental management is difficult but inescapable. Sometimes, the state tries to manage the resources it owns, and does so badly. Often, however, governments act in an even more harmful way. They actually subsidise the exploitation and consumption of natural resources. A whole range of policies, from farm- price support to protection for coal-mining, do environmental damage and often make no economic sense.

Scrapping them offers a two-fold bonus: a cleaner environment and a more efficient economy. Growth and environmentalism can actually go hand in hand, if politicians have the courage to confront the vested interest that subsidies create. World food output per head has risen by 4 per cent between the s and s mainly as a result of increases in yields from land already in cultivation, but also because more land has been brought under the plough. Higher yields have been achieved by increased irrigation, better crop breeding, and a doubling in the use of pesticides and chemical fertilisers in the s and s.

All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts.

environmental management ielts reading answers

For example, land clearing for agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation; chemical fertilisers and pesticides may contaminate water supplies; more intensive farming and the abandonment of fallow periods tend to exacerbate soil erosion; and the spread of mono-Culture and use of high-yielding varieties of crops have been accompanied by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants which might have provided some insurance against pests or diseases in future.

Soil erosion threatens the productivity of land In both rich and poor countries. The country subsequently embarked upon a program to convert 11 per cent of its cropped land to meadow or forest.

environmental management ielts reading answers

Topsoil in India and China is vanishing much faster than in America. Government policies have frequently compounded the environmental damage that farming can cause. In the rich countries, subsidies for growing crops and price supports for farm output drive up the price of land. Fertiliser use doubled in Denmark in the period and increased in The Netherlands by per cent.

The quantity of pesticides applied has risen too; by 69 per cent In in Denmark, for example, with a rise of per cent in the frequency of application in the three years from In the late s and early s some efforts were made to reduce farm subsidies. The most dramatic example was that of New Zealand, which scrapped most farm support in A study of the environmental effects, conducted infound that the end of fertiliser subsidies had been followed by a fall in fertiliser use a fall compounded by the decline in world commodity prices, which cut farm incomes.

The removal of subsidies also stopped land-clearing and over-stocking, which in the past had been the principal causes of erosion.Found a mistake? Let us know!

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Share this Practice Test. The role of governments in environmental management is difficult but inescapable. Sometimes, the state tries to manage the resources it owns, and does so badly. Often, however, governments act in an even more harmful way. They actually subsidise the exploitation and consumption of natural resources. A whole range of policies, from farm- price support to protection for coal-mining, do environmental damage and often make no economic sense.

Scrapping them offers a two-fold bonus: a cleaner environment and a more efficient economy. Growth and environmentalism can actually go hand in hand, if politicians have the courage to confront the vested interest that subsidies create. No activity affects more of the earth's surface than farming. It shapes a third of the planet's land area, not counting Antarctica, and the proportion Is rising.

World food output per head has risen by 4 per cent between the s and s mainly as a result of increases in yields from land already in cultivation, but also because more land has been brought under the plough.

Higher yields have been achieved by increased irrigation, better crop breeding, and a doubling in the use of pesticides and chemical fertilisers in the s and s. All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts. For example, land clearing for agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation; chemical fertilisers and pesticides may contaminate water supplies; more intensive farming and the abandonment of fallow periods tend to exacerbate soil erosion; and the spread of mono-Culture and use of high-yielding varieties of crops have been accompanied by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants which might have provided some insurance against pests or diseases in future.

Soil erosion threatens the productivity of land In both rich and poor countries. The United States, where the most careful measurements have been done, discovered in that about one-fifth of its farmtand as losing topsoil at a rate likely to diminish the soil's productivity. The country subsequently embarked upon a program to convert 11 per cent of its cropped land to meadow or forest. Topsoil in India and China is vanishing much faster than in America.

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Government policies have frequently compounded the environmental damage that farming can cause. In the rich countries, subsidies for growing crops and price supports for farm output drive up the price of land.

To increase the output of crops per acre, a farmer's easiest option is to use more of the most readily available inputs: fertilisers and pesticides. Fertiliser use doubled in Denmark in the period and increased in The Netherlands by per cent.

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The quantity of pesticides applied has risen too; by 69 per cent In in Denmark, for example, with a rise of per cent in the frequency of application in the three years from In addition to providing the traditional resort-leisure product, it has been argued that ecotourism resort management should have a particular focus on best-practice environmental management, an educational and interpretive component, and direct and indirect contributions to the conservation of the natural and cultural environment Ayala, Couran Cove Resort, which is one such tourist attractions, is located on South Stradbroke Island, occupying approximately hectares of the island.

South Stradbroke Island is separated from the mainland by the Broadwater, a stretch of sea 3 kilometers wide. More than a century ago, there was only one Stradbroke Island, and there were at least four aboriginal tribes living and hunting on the island. Eventually, the ocean broke through the weakened land form and Stradbroke became two islands. Many mangrove and rainforest areas, and Malaleuca Wetlands on South Stradbroke Island and in Queenslandhave been cleared, drained or filled for residential, industrial, agricultural or urban development in the first half of the 20th century.

Farmer and graziers finally abandoned South Stradbroke Island in because the vegetation and the soil conditions there were not suitable for agricultural activities. Being located on an offshore island, the resort is only accessible by means of water transportation.

The resort provides hourly ferry service from the marina on the mainland to and from the island. Within the resort, transport modes include walking trails, bicycle tracks and the beach train. The reception area is the counter of the shop which has not changed in 8 years at least. These are large rooms that are clean but!

The equipment is tired and in some cases just working. Our ceiling fan only worked on high speed for example. Beds are hard but clean, there is television, radio, an old air conditioner and a small fridge.

The only thing is the mosquitos but if you forget to bring mosquito repellant they sell some on the island. As an ecotourism-based resort, most of the planning and development of the attraction has been concentrated on the need to co-exist with the fragile natural environment of South Stradbroke Island to achieve sustainable development.

The water supply is recharged by rainfall and is commonly known as an unconfined freshwater aquifer. Couran Cove Island Resort obtains its water supply by tapping into this aquifer and extracting it via a bore system. In order to minimise some of these problems, all laundry activities are carried out on the mainland.

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Excess heat recovered from the generator is used to heat the swimming pool. Water efficient fittings are also installed in showers and toilets. However, not all the appliances used by the resort are energy efficient, such as refrigerators. Visitors who stay at the resort are encouraged to monitor their water and energy usage via the in-house television system, and are rewarded with prizes such as a free return trip to the resort accordingly if their usage level is low.

In three years of operation, Couran Cove Island Resort has won 23 international and national awards, including the Australian Tourism Award in the 4-Star Accommodation category. The resort has embraced and has effectively implemented contemporary environmental management practices.

It has been argued that the successful implementation of the principles of sustainability should promote long-term social, economic and environmental benefits, while ensuring and enhancing the prospects of continued viability for the tourism enterprise.

According to Prideaux, the resort should be at least at Phase 3 of the model the National tourism phasewhich describes an integrated resort providing star hotel-type accommodation. The primary tourist market in Phase 3 of the model consists mainly of interstate visitors. However, the number of interstate and international tourists visiting the resort is small, with the principal visitor markets comprising locals and residents from nearby towns and the Gold Coast region.


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